The United States has agreements with the Cook Islands, Kiribati, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, Palau, Samoa, Tonga and Tuvalu. Operations usually take place when U.S. Coast Guard vessels are already patrolling near U.S. and high seas. The United States has signed a bilateral maritime drift agreement with China, five bilateral maritime shipping agreements (four permanent transitionals) with West African countries (Cape Verde, Gambia, Ghana, Sierra Leone and Senegal) and ten permanent bilateral maritime shipping agreements with Pacific Island States (Kiribati, Palau, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Cook Islands, Cook Islands, Cook Islands, Tonga Nauru, Tuvalu, Samoa and Vanu). Ship-operated conduct agreements with the United States and other countries have helped to fill this capacity gap and more attention needs to be paid to improvement and enlargement. Driver agreements allow a police officer from a Pacific Island host country to board a U.S. Coast Guard trawler patrolling inside its EEZ. The official thus authorizes the U.S.
Coast Guard to enforce the law of his country – which the host country often cannot do itself. As part of these agreements, the U.S. Coast Guard conducted up to 70 days of patrols per year in the Pacific. These results and, for a well-known reason, resulted in a $4 million fine imposed by Kiribati. But there are only so many things a coast guard can do. Since 2009, the WCPFC vessel monitoring system has registered 6,000 different vessels participating in fishing in the WCPCF-controlled area, which accounts for 20% of the land surface, and the value of INT fishing in these waters is estimated at $1.5 billion per year. Another option is to extend the seafaring agreements to ships from other countries, particularly to vessels that do not currently practice fishing. Fishing surveillance and enforcement is an opportunity for emerging powers with increased military capabilities to demonstrate their commitment as responsible regional actors.